Genetic Features of Drought are in Azerbaijan

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Mammadov Asgar Samed*

Citation: Mammadov Asgar Samed, Сalalova Vafa Yashar, “Genetic Features of Drought are in Azerbaijan”, American Research Journal of Agriculture, Vol 7, no. 1, 2021, pp. 1-6.

Copyright This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The initial stage of the drought usually begins with low-activity high anticyclones and is followed by continuous (several weeks to 2-3 months) high temperatures and low rainfalls. As a result, the soil moisture reserve decreases, the high temperature gradually decreases in humidity, increase potential evaporation, and the threat to agricultural crops increases. The long-timedroughts (several years) even lead to the migration of the population. In this regard, it is undeniable that the role of the Azores and Siberian maximums in the activation of hydrometeorological anomalies in Azerbaijan has recently increased.

Keywords: trend; angle coefficient; drought; productivity.



The effects of the global warming are now increasingly relevant to the researchof the drought. Not only researchers, but the whole world is concerned about how long the temperature will rise and what complications it will cause. On the other hand, in contemporary times, it becomes necessary to holdresearch in a new field, such as the quantitative study of drought-productivity relations. In order to characterize the drought in the territory of the republic in terms of the space and the time, firstly, the regions with the long-term observation data have beenstudied. In the figure 1 there have been presented the calculated SPI-indices for the Guba region on using the 116-year precipitation data [1,4].

As it can be seen from the graph, the value of the trend for SPI-indices over 1900-2018y.y. tends to decrease. So, the beginning of the warming period, accepted in western countries, coincides with the growing trend of the drought. 62 years out of mentioned 116 years have been passed dry. After 1940 y., the frequency of droughts increased even more. Thus, in the period up to 1940 y., over only 7 years and then over 55 years there have been drought. Until 1949 y., the frequency of droughts reached 14 years. So, in 1940- 1949y.y. the frequency of drought in Guba increased by 50% (Figure 1).

34 of all droughts, that have occurred in Gubaover 1900- 2018y.y, have been observed over 1950-2000y.y., and it consists of about 45% of noted drought years in the region (figure 1). The intensity of droughts in these years also differs from previous years. . Thus, over mentioned 50 years 6 times “very strong”, 14 times “strong”, 9 times “moderate”, 5 times “weak drought” have been observed (Figure 1).

Droughts in Guba in 2000 - 2018 y.y. consist of approximately 24% of all droughts observed over 116 years. In other words, 15 years has been recorded as a dry year in 18 years, during which both the frequency and intensity of the droughts increased(Figure 2). So, 10 of the 18 years of drought have been registered as “strong” and 1 year as “very strong” drought year. Thus, in each of these 18 years (with exception of 2 years) a drought has been recorded. Thus, in the example of Guba region, located in the north-eastern region of the republic, it has been determined that the incidence of drought increased by about 30-35% in every 50 years over 1900-2018y.y.

Of course, sharp changes in the intensity of the drought depend on the orographic and climatic characteristics of the region. The region is located on the north-eastern slope of the Greater Caucasus at the altitude of about 600-700 m above sea level and covers a number of mountain slopes, valleys and high mountain ranges.

If we pay attention to the features of the drought in the Ganja region, located on the north-eastern slope of the Lesser Caucasus in terms of similarity of the synoptic situation, we can say that the SPI-indices are similar to those in Guba. Here, the trend is on the decline.The transition from positive to negative occurred in 1965 y. 59 years of researched 116 years have been dry. And it consists of51% of total years. 29 years of these occurred drought years coincides with beforeand 30 years after 1965 y. (Figure 3).

The determination of the drought indices of mountainous areas is of more interest than the foothills. One of the main reasons for this is that some studies [1,3] show increased rainfall in mountainous areas. In this case, the situation could be perceived as a change in the circulatory regime. Thus, in a sense, it can be said that in contemporary warming periods, onthe increasing temperature, the precipitation decreases, and the drought increases.